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Russell has been credited with inventing the first system to record digital information on an optical transparent foil that is lit from behind by a high-power halogen lamp.

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Prototypes were developed by Philips and Sony independently in the late s. After their commercial release incompact discs and their players were extremely popular.

The unified design of the compact disc allowed consumers to purchase any disc or player from any company, and allowed the CD to dominate the at-home music market unchallenged. The diameter of Philips's prototype compact disc was set at His team developed a digital PCM adaptor audio tape recorder using a Betamax video recorder in After this, in the leap to storing digital audio on an optical disc was easily made.

A week later, on 8 March, Philips publicly demonstrated a prototype of an optical digital audio disc at a press conference called "Philips Introduce Compact Disc" [21] in EindhovenNetherlands. Led by engineers Kees Schouhamer Immink and Toshitada Doithe research pushed forward laser and optical disc technology.

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First published inthe standard was formally adopted by the IEC as an international standard inwith various amendments becoming part of the standard in Philips coined the term compact disc in line with another audio product, the Compact Cassette[18] and contributed the general manufacturing processbased on video LaserDisc technology.

Philips also contributed eight-to-fourteen modulation EFMwhich offers a certain resilience to defects such as scratches and fingerprints, while Sony contributed the error-correction method, CIRC. The Compact Disc Story, [16] told by a former member of the task force, gives background information on the many technical decisions made, including the choice of the sampling frequency, playing time, and disc diameter. Their subsequent expertise in reindeer-breeding has been of value to several other peoples.

This experience born of centuries of living with the land did not yield easily to the destructive efforts of the Soviet administration. The first collective farms on Nenets territory were set up in Collectivization was, however, completed only 20 years later by means of ideological brainwashing militant atheism, political propaganda and widespread repression.

The reindeer-breeders even rose up in armed struggle against collectivization, and attacked the town of Vorkuta. The army used aircraft to subdue the Nenets as if they were a pack of wolves.

The Russians achieved a breakthrough in the s when they began to merge small collective farms. This meant deportations for the Nenets and forced transition from a nomadic to a settled mode of life.

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The recalcitrance of the Nenets was overcome by a relatively simple method: Nenets women, children and elderly people who were not directly employed in reindeer breeding, were forcibly settled into villages. In time the men were compelled to follow their families. A system of state-controlled sustenance for northern peoples was established by a government decree in A Nenets or a Lapp, or an Evenk was considered to be in state custody from birth to the day he completed his education.

This meant growing up in a boarding school, away from one's home and ethnic background.

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A youth who has left school is as helpless as a hothouse plant on permafrost. A lot of damage has been caused by a Soviet levelling system which deliberately ignores specific needs, local peculiarities and national characteristics. The Nenets also study at schools run in accordance with a Russian standard syllabus; apartment blocks are built according to a standard; the village hall director works according to a standard prescription. Even food rations coupons for buying tea, sugar, flour, butter, tobacco, etc.

Since the s chemical and oil industries have exerted their influence on the life of the Nenets -- in the Pechora region and in northwestern Siberia big companies like Gazprom, Norilsknikel and others are a dominant influence.

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Industry is the prime and privileged concern and their own administrative units have proved incapable of protecting the rights of the Nenets.

The industrial boom has brought along a drastic increase in population and pollution of the natural habitat. On the Taymyr peninsula, for example, the proportion of recent settlers to native-born residents was six to one excepting theinhabitants of the city of Norilsk and the prison camps.

The pollution caused by Norilsknikel alone has destroyed 4. According to technocratic reckoning, the price of one hectare of tundra land is 59 kopecks, although economists have arrived at a figure of 20, roubles. The environment suffers from acid rains; heavy metals accumulate in the moss and through reindeer killed for meat, enter into the human diet. Nuclear tests on Novaya Zemlya are another grave danger to the health and existence of the people of the area.

Industrial cultivation has caused displacement of the Nenets language -- the unfavourable demographic situation gives rise to unfavourable linguistic tendencies -- and culture.

In addition it has led to extraordinarily high death and suicide rates. The life-expectancy of Nenets is 45 to 50 years. The wages of the natives are considerably lower than those of the recent settlers and the "glass ruble", that is, a bottle of strong alcohol, functions as the hard currency in the tundra.

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For centuries the Nenets, as most northern peoples, have used pictographic writing. Special family signs called tamga were used to mark property. Attempts to establish a written language were made by the Orthodox missionaries. In the s archimandrite Venyamin Smirnov published some religious texts.

Spelling books were also introduced e. Sibirtsev,however, they had little lasting success.

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In the Nenets literary language was established on the basis of the Bolshaya Zemlya vernacular one of the Central vernacularsusing the Latin alphabet. A spelling book Jadei vada 'New World'a reader, an arithmetic book and school glossaries were published, and a number of political writings and sketches of everyday life translated from Russian. In a transition to the Russian alphabet was made and since then there has also been partial compliance with Russian orthography.

Until recently the publishing output has consisted mainly of new schoolbooks textbooks for primary schools, etc. The best known writers are Tyko VylkaIvan Istomin b. Unfortunately, the quantity of literature published in Nenets is minimal and thus alongside the vast body of Russian work published, its influence is zero. The kinship between the Finno-Ugric and Samoyedic languages was first mentioned by Ph.

Word lists and comments were to be found as early as in the comparative dictionary Linguarum totius orbis vocabularia comparativa by P. Linguistic material has been collected by D. Vater attempted in to write an outline grammar of the Nenets language on the ground of one legend but the material proved insufficient for the task. The foundation for systematic research was laid by M.

Lehtisalo commenced his study of the Nenets language. In the Soviet Union the year marked the starting-point for Samoyedic studies. In an Association for Academic Research was founded at the Institute of Northern Peoples in Leningrad, specializing in the minor ethnic groups of the Arctic regions and Siberia.

The Nenets literary language was established in and a grammatical survey was written by G. An outline grammar by N.

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Tereshchenko has remained to date the most comprehensive of its kind. A collection of folklore has been published by T. Lehtisalo and an ethnological survey by L.